三博士的崇拜(Adoration of the Magi)

回「宗教与绘画

书接上文,耶稣诞生,圣诞节。

当晚,有一些牧羊人在田野里放羊。天使向他们现身,告诉了他们好消息:「不要惧怕,…今天在大卫的城里,为你们生了救主,就是主基督。」

这一段故事,名叫「向牧羊人报佳音」(Annunciation to the shepherds)。

Announcement to the shepherds, c. 1600, Manner of Abraham Bloemaert (1564–1651)
Angels announcing Christ’s birth to the shepherds, 1639, by Govert Flinck (1615–1660)

在《查理·布朗的圣诞节》里,Linus 的那一段独白讲解圣诞意义,就是说的这一段故事。

[youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BeVDOu2_Fuc]

And there were in the same country shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flock by night. And, lo, the angel of the Lord came upon them, and the glory of the Lord shone round about them: and they were sore afraid. And the angel said unto them, Fear not: for, behold, I bring you good tidings of great joy, which shall be to all people. For unto you is born this day in the city of David a Saviour, which is Christ the Lord. And this shall be a sign unto you; Ye shall find the babe wrapped in swaddling clothes, lying in a manger. And suddenly there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly host praising God, and saying, Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace, good will toward men.

Luke 2:8-14

据「马太福音」的记载,有三个东方来的博士(一说是三个国王),跟随着天上的星星,一路找到耶稣诞生的地方。

他们看见玛利亚(Mary, mother of Jesus)和耶稣母子,「就俯伏拜那小孩子,揭开宝盒,拿黄金,乳香,没药为礼物献给他。」

这一段名叫「三博士的崇拜」(Adoration of the Magi)。

Adoration of the Magi, unfinished, 1481, by Leonardo da Vinci

公元 1481 年,达·芬奇 开始为佛罗伦萨的一座教堂创作上面的这幅「三博士的崇拜」。但未完成之前,他就于 1482 年起身去米兰了。所以这幅作品一直没有完成,现存于 Uffizi 博物馆

据说画中最右边的那个侧脸人,是达芬奇的自画像。


Adoration of the Magi, c 1476, by Sandro Botticelli (1444-1510)

在波提切利(Botticelli)的这幅「三博士的崇拜」里,作者把赞助人 Medici 家族 和自己,都画进了作品之中。中间那个穿深色衣服,触碰耶稣(圣婴)的脚的老者,是Medici家族大佬:Cosimo de’ Medici。大佬右侧的是他两个儿子,Giovanni(银袍),Piero(红袍)。红袍Piero的右边,是孙子辈的Giuliano(白袍)和Lorenzo(黑袍)。

最右边回首看向我们的,则是作者波提切利本人。


Adoration of the Magi, c. 1617, by Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640)
Adoration of the Magi, c.1423, by Gentile da Fabriano (1370–)
The Adoration of the Magi (c. 1450), by Giovanni di Paolo (Italian, c. 1403–1482)

有时,艺术家们把「向牧羊人报佳音」和「三博士的崇拜」,合二为一成为「牧羊人的崇拜」。

The Adoration of the Shepherds, c. 1505, by Giorgione (c.1473 –1510). National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

耶稣诞生(Nativity)宗教与绘画献于圣殿(Presentation)
三博士的崇拜(Adoration of the Magi)

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